Chapter 1 Establishment of European and British Rule in India
 Answer the following questions in one sentence:
[Q] Which European nations had tried to find a sea route to India?
European nations like Portugal, Spain, Holland, and the Portuguese tried to find a sea route to India.
[Q] Why were the Europeans in need of Indian spices?
The people of Europe were largely carnivores and needed Indian spices to preserve their meat.
[Q] Which war resulted in the introduction of dual system rule in Bengal?
After the Battle of Buxar in 1764 AD dual system came into existence.
[Q] Under which act was the supreme court established?
The Supreme court was established by the Regulating ACT [1773 AD]
[Q] Write Short notes on
Battle of Plassey:-
The Battle of Plassey was fought between Siraj-ud-Daulah and the British in 1757 C.E. On June 23, 1757, Clive’s soldiers and the nawab took part in a battle near Murshidabad called Plassey. A nawab’s general faced off against the British but was defeated because of Mir Jafar’s treachery. Mir Jafar was made Nawab and Siraj ud daula was captured and killed. The Nawab gave 24 Parganas to the British and allowed them to trade without excise duty. After the battle of Plassey, the entire Bengal came under British control.
Battle of Buxar:-
MIR Qasim nawab of Bengal met nawab of Mahadh and the Mughal emperor decided to expel the British from India. The British army under the leadership of major Munro fought against these 3 rulers who had an army of 50K soldiers and defeated them together in the battle of Buxar. The British won and the war of Plassey made their motive firm. There were no opponents in India to challenge the British who had defeated these three rulers together. The battle of Buxar gave the British all rights to Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa.
Anglo Maratha War:-
After the first war between the Marathas and the British, the treaty of Salabai was signed. Each of them returned to his own territory, so no one was defeated. In the second Maratha War, from 1803 to 1805 AD, the British established their authority over the Marathas. Orissa, Agra, and Delhi came under British control. The Maratha power was utterly destroyed in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, from 1817 to 1819 AD. The Peshwa was sent to Bithur near Kanpur with a pension.
After the end of the Vijaynagar empire, Mysore was the most powerful state in South India under the leadership of Hyder Ali. Hyder Ali trained the soldiers with European methods and supplied them with weapons. The British were worried about Hyder Ali’s rapidly increasing power and authority, so they fought four wars with Mysore. The first two battles were fought with Hyder Ali, and the second two with his powerful son, Tipu Sultan.
Write the answers to the following questions:
The European people were forced to find a sea route to India. Explain the statement?
Constantinople was the headquarter of the trade route between India and Europe. in 1453 AD the Turks conquered Constantinople, and Indian good stopped flowing to Europe and western countries of the world. the Europeans required Indian spices to preserve their meat. also, they stopped getting cotton, silk, spices, indigo, niter, timber, etc. which were exported by India to Europe. when the land trade stopped they were forced to find a sea route to India.
Write a concise note on the British police force?
The British Police Force was as important as the army and was started by Governor-General Cornwallis. He replaced the traditional Indian feudal police department with a modern police department. A DSP was appointed as the police officer at the district level. They started police stations at different places and appointed Faujdar[SI]. Guards were posted in villages. In the police force, only Britishers could hold high positions, while Indians worked as sepoys.
 Find the correct option from the following options and write the correct answer:
 Which city was the capital of the Portuguese in India
- Dadra and Nagar Haveli
 The European people who settled in Masulipatnam after receiving a decree from the ruler of Golconda were………..
 Which English officer started the judiciary in India?
- Warren hastings
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